Ginzberg Middle School Girl Group That is Culturally Diverse
Kristi Tarashke
Week 1
Introduction, rules, and confidentiality
For introduction, girls will write full name, family members they live with, possible goals for the group and then give a description of themselves.  Girls would then compare and contrast characteristics between themselves and the other members in the group.
Week 2
Have each member create a collage with pictures from magazines that tell what each girl likes about herself and what she likes to do.  The focus is on self-discovery and self-knowledge.  Girls may focus on how their family, culture, or beliefs influence their interests.
Week 3
Job interview
Each girl will interview parent or an adult role model about his/her job.  She will then share her information with the group.  The focus will be to recognize job requirements of a certain profession. Discussion would follow about characteristics of the person in the job and what types of people could perform job.
Week 4
Matching game
The girls will play a matching game that matches values and jobs that they believe go together.  In other works, they would put the value to a job that they think a person in that job would hold. The focus would be recognizing goals. Discussion would include how a person's family, cultural, and religious, values influence their values in work.
Week 5
Time line
The girls will create a time line starting at middle school and continuing to the end of their careers or life.  This will help create a perspective of time for the girls.  Again, girls will consider how their personal culture and other cultures may influence different timelines.
Week 6


Middle-aged women who are wanting a career change or at least to explore their options.

Lea Mishlan

Week 1

Introductions, confidentiality, rules


Week 2


Strategy- Discuss occupational history and any occupations that they are considering.

Week 3

Abilities & Values

Strategy-  Using activities, (card sorts) decide what abilities they hold and what values are important.

Week 4

Information Getting

Strategy-  Illustrate what values were highlighted in previous week and what occupations would be congruent with abilities and values.

Week 5

Compare Cost/Benefits

Strategy-  Compare what would be gained and what would be lost by quitting their jobs and attaining their new occupations.

Week 6

Plan for future/ closure

Strategy-  Either plan what steps should then be taken or make the optimal choices. 


**Multicultural Considerations: -Group would be culturally diverse to add to the experience. This would bring up more issues and would demonstrate a more reality-based environment these women would soon be facing.  -During Weeks 3 & 4 -we would spend time assessing what values each individual selected and how that represents their cultural standpoint.  Then the group could discuss the differences and likenesses of that person with others in the group.  Also, helpful would be too consider what it would be like in the work world with an awareness (or lack) of multicultural issues. The goals of the group would be to understand what changes they can make and what change would entail. This involves understanding cultural differences as work environments vary and the group will be able to understand and be aware of this.


CIP With Culturally Diverse Female Students

Tammy Greene


Week 1

Introductions of each participant, discussion of self-motivation as it relates to career searching, clarifying expectations of group, and concluding with each group member identifying goals they would like to accomplish within 4 week sessions.  I would include a discussion of family and cultural expectations that might influence their career decision.

Week 2

Focus on self-knowledge, discussion and worksheet on "who am I and where did I come from?" to have a look at ancestry.  Completion of family tree and Internet search to trace lineage.   Form smaller groups and assign a specific culture (Asian, African-American, Indian, etc.)  to be researched.  Each group is to present to the others on their assigned culture, focusing on family dynamics and influences, gender biases, and other references that might influence career choice. Interview assigned for homework of oldest living relative in regards to the culture and religious background they grew up in.

Week 3

Begin by reviewing homework assignment and the experience of learning about your relative and ancestry. Class discussion focusing on the pressures of family/cultural influence vs. doing what you want to do. Then follow up with decision-making exercises and solving career-related problems. Complete exercises and review decision-making sequence of steps, split group up into pairs and identify as many solutions as possible to a given career problem.

Week 4

Discuss the interaction of affective and cognitive processes and how this influences career decision-making.  Summarize past 3 weeks.  Pull out goals identified during week 1 and check off what was completed.  Discuss where to go to from here.  Closing statements.


Unemployed 20 Somethings: Diversity – Latinos

Andrea Washburne




Multicultural Component


Meet at local library conference room.

Introduce group to concept of theory, discuss why meeting and what to expect to gain from group, introduce each other and tell why in group, discuss ethics/confidentiality.

Affirm racial differences - mine and theirs – and directly ask what the impact of working in white society may be. This would be to assess acculturation and to judge what goals for the group would be.



Take the SDS online at the local library and then meet in conference room to discuss. Have alike members break into groups and talk about results and then have them discuss in a larger group. Talk about how traits can help with job search and why unsatisfied in

past and what want for future.

Talk about how cultural heritage has influenced personal and past job decisions. Positively reinforce with examples of successful Latino/a(s) such as the two Latina sisters recently elected to congress. Also discuss where from and what the immigration experience was like.



Meet in the group and talk about how results impacted their thinking for the week. Being unemployed for a lengthy time can cause much negative self-talk. Hopefully the SDS results have helped with that and given a new outlook. If not group talking about feelings about self during job hunt will help create universality and inspire hope. Help persons to realize that congruency between personality and environment are key to satisfaction. After talking have persons look up careers of interest on internet or in books. 

Also have them look into Latin resources within the community to help them access the network that exists. Give direct training on networking and its benefits


Talk again about week any negative or positive thoughts and what may have occurred. Move toward making a decision. Work on resumes or applications for schools. Closure activity or if want to meet again that would be fine and I would help to work out any decision or negative thinking problems.

Encourage to come to individual counseling as many may have been shy to appear weak within the group also have a Latin speaker to come in to talk about specific issues.



PEC - High School Students Not College Bound

Rosemarie Miller


Counselor will go over the rules of the group session and confidentiality and have each group member read and sign; identifying the goals of counseling; getting to know each other; self-esteem assessment.

This will be a culturally diverse group.  During introduction, each person will identify his/her cultural background.



Identifying interests and needs.

Strategy: a) Personal Career Development Profile Assessment. b) Discuss the differences of needs among group because of religious background, ethnicity, gender, or other cultural differences.  c) Talk about how important it is that personality, personal needs, cultural needs, and work environment match.


Identify skills and abilities.

Strategy: a) Campbell Interest and Skills Survey.  b) visit websites such as to identify jobs matching skills and abilities c) discuss skills required for specific occupations and how to acquire those skills.


Discuss job preparation.

Strategy: a) how to research job position, organization, environment (via the web) b) how to complete the application process c) identify cultural barriers to successful job search.


Job Preparation, continued

Strategy: a) how to prepare resume/cover letter (using web resources) b) how to interview well (role-play). Modeling is very important for learning proper strategies for successful job search.


The next step and closure.

Strategy:  a) have group members prepare a written plan of their next step.


A CIP Career Group With a Multicultural Population of Women

Danielle Johnson


Introduction of group members.  Have each person share a little bit about themselves and what

brought them to the group.  Have the group come up with some ground rules for sharing, listening, etc.  Also, discuss confidentiality.  Before the group leaves, briefly discuss the purpose of the group and a give a brief outline of the next weeks plan.


Before starting the activity for the session, briefly review the ground rules agreed upon by the group and also review confidentiality.  Discuss what it means to have negative thoughts and have group members give examples of some negative thoughts.  We will then discuss any cultural impacts on these thoughts.  These maybe related to their culture (i.e.: race) or as women. Have the group members take the CTI.  For homework, the group members will complete a negative thought chart during the week.  The group leader will supply the chart.  Each member is asked to write down any negative thoughts they have throughout the week and complete the chart.  Each member will also consider any cultural implications that may be affecting their thoughts or behaviors.  The members should be sure to include these in the chart and write down how the cultural implications can be handled. 


Review the previous session.  Go over results of CTI.  What the results mean, how the members feel about the test/results, etc.  Discuss, as a group if they felt there were any cultural biases and or any biases against women on the CTI.  Discuss the homework given and have some, or all, group members share their charts from the week.  Discuss ways to reframe negative thoughts, either related to career or personal.  Also discuss the cultural/sexual implications each member wrote about on their chart.  Encourage members to continue using the chart if it helps them identify and

work through their negative thoughts.  Homework for this week: have each group member identify at least one negative thought over the next week and use a strategy to try and reframe the negative thought into a positive one. 


Review the previous session.  Each group member will share at least one experience he/she had during the week concerning the homework.  Encourage member interaction by linking members’ experiences and asking others to give feedback.  Although the group will be diverse culturally, encourage the members to recognize similar thoughts and feelings.  Even if the experience may be different, the emotions may be the same.  Discuss ways group members can continue to work on their negative thoughts.  Have each group member, and the leader, give closing statements.  These closing statements can be how they were affected by the group, did it help them, do they feel they can work on reframing independently, etc.  Encourage group members to seek individual counseling if they need more guidance with their negative thoughts.


Gottfredson’s Theory with a Domestic Violence Women's Group

Kristin Kushmider


Week 1

Introductions, counseling relationships, confidentiality among group members and counselor. Begin discussion of self-concept

a. Create an introduction game, could be career interest related (categorized by Holland types / personality).

b.Discuss confidentiality among group members (what's said in here stays in here) discuss counseling issues (reporting homicidal / suicidal thoughts, confidentiality limitations, etc.)

c. Begin discussion of self concept and how gender, personality, SES, education, family, cultural issues, religion etc. shape who we are and how we see ourselves.

Week 2

Continue discussion of self concept. Also begin images of occupations and Cognitive maps.

  1. Bring in several magazines (cosmo, glamour, self, woman’s day, Ebony, Latina, world news, Newsweek, family circle, also allow clients to bring their own magazines, etc. ) and allow clients to make a collage about their self image. Allow clients to present their collages.
  2. Discuss with clients images and stereotypes they have of certain occupations.
  3. Discuss cultural aspects of their choices and how culture can affect decision-making (include family values, religion, stereotypes).
  4. Take Holland Type inventory and an inventory that is culturally inclusive (based on the makeup of the group).

Week 3

Introduce Social Space

Group card sort of career interests and values, include diversity cards in the card sort (religion, family values, cultural stereotypes, etc. Discuss where client wants to be career wise, in society, or community, with in their race / culture. Discuss acceptable, alternative careers include careers that minority women may not consider due to stereotypes and dysfunctional cognitive beliefs (CIP theory).       

Week 4

Circumscription and compromise

  1. Have clients review their collages, Holland types and Card sort results. Have group discussion about where client would like to be. Have group members tell each other what careers they see each other in.
  2. If / then assignment. If you are unable to match up your values, Holland type, environment and interests, what do you do?
  3. Discuss cultural and societal stereotypes in relation to the results of the inventories, and group reactions. Discuss how culture and ethnicity have affected job choice, current situation and future goals.
  4. Also discuss cultural awareness and stereotypes among the women themselves, have them arrange a cultural awareness night as the final group meeting and each woman can bring a dish, article of clothing or artifact from her culture and explain how these things relate to their culture and how their culture relates to their career beliefs.

I felt this was a good theory to work with this particular population because it does include self-concept and images and women who have been victims of domestic violence often are starting over. They are having to learn about themselves, especially after leaving an abuser.


PEC Theory Career Group Counseling/Multicultural

Joanna Grant


The PEC theory would apply well with students enrolled in the Student Support Services Program offered at most colleges.  Most of the students in this program have been identified as “at risk” and are predominately

African American and Hispanic. 


Week 1

With a group of 10-12 students, begin the session with introductions.  A name tag activity would

be a great way to have students introduce themselves. Have students create a nametag by cutting out pictures that represent their personality, family, culture, and life experience, and paste on index cards. Review confidentiality guide lines, and introduce the topic of “Diversity in the Work Place”.  The goal is to have students acknowledge differences with in groups, and with individuals.

Week 2

Begin this session by acknowledging the cultural diversity within the group.  Define terms and

allow students to talk about their culture, by pairing up with some one else of a different culture would be a good way to start, and then share with the group.  List on chart paper for the group to view.  Begin to move the topic into the work force by asking “how might one’s culture or diversity impact the work environment?”  Consider a guest speaker to come and speak to the group about this issue, an African American or Hispanic supervisor of a large department that employs a diverse

group of people would be a good choice.

Week 3

The goal of this session will be to have students identify what their personal and work values are.  Have some open discussion on how their own culture may have influenced these values and how culture plays an important role in work related values.  Consider card sorts to help identify and prioritize values, have students work with a partner allowing for small group discussion.

Week 4

By this last session, students have already identified their occupation of interest and have done

some research on their own.  Students at this point are determining if their chosen work environment is a good match for them.  Have students list some challenges that they may encounter in their chosen work environment as it relates to their own culture, such as employer’s attitude or stereotyping.  Have students do some problem solving to find solutions to challenges.


Career Group for High School Hispanic Females based on Holland’s Theory

Renee Jackson

Week 1

Introduction Assessment of Personality Type 

Students will complete the SDS online to determine their personality types. Counselor will provide interpretation of the results.  Students will break into small groups to discuss their results.  Counselor will initiate a

group discussion regarding the role their Hispanic culture might play in their future careers.  Discussion will center on family, traditions, language, religion, and stereotypes.

Week 2

Exploration of environments

Students will break into 6 small groups and be

provided with information on one of the personality styles and it's corresponding occupational environment. The students will be provided with markers, poster board, and overheads and will develop a short presentation for their classmates on their assigned subject.  Students will be asked to provide an example of how their Hispanic heritage might affect a career choice in a particular environment.   

Weeks 3 and 4

Occupational exploration

Guest speakers from various careers within the 6 types will visit the class and share information regarding their career.  Students will be provided with handouts with information regarding the careers. Counselor will locate successful Hispanic females to serve as guest speakers.

Week 5

Career planning and closure

Students will identify three careers they are interested in and create a plan for learning more about the career. Students will be provided with resources to research careers in the library and online.  Students will practice researching careers online. 


Holland’s Theory With High School Students

Shawn Marinello


Week 1

Introduction of people in the group.  Talk about confidentially in the group.  Also discuss the

philosophy of the theory.  Explain how people search for corresponding environments, and that there are 6 personality types. At the beginning of the session each student will be given a piece of paper.  On this piece of paper there will be an informational profile of a person who is a minority.  The paper will have information about where they are from, what their families are like, and what their interests are.  The student will take on this persona as they research through Holland’s personality types.  The goal is for the student to be able to walk in the “shoes” of a minority student.  The students will research some information on the cultural history of the minority persona they have.

Week 2

Begin by discussing what they had learned from their research. After that I will explain the personality types.  Go over what each letter means and what type of personalities that go with each letter.  I will bring in a sample SDS and go over the results.  Ask the students in the group what type of personality they think their person would be. Homework- Take SDS an bring in results for next session.

Week 3

Will begin by reviewing the students SDS reports.  After we have discussed the reports the students will choose 2 jobs under their highest personality type.  As a group we will discuss why they have chosen this job.  Homework-Go to the OOH website and learn more about their 2 jobs.

Week 4

The students will bring in their information that they found on the website.  After we have gone through these sessions we will discuss what they learned from the process.  We will discuss how their search would have differed if they would have searched as a Caucasian.  We will then have an open discussion of what they have learned from the group work.


Williamson’s Six Stage theory for Asian Women Entering the Work Place for the First Time

DiLee Sherred

Week 1


This would be an important time to help them understand the value of counseling and to assist them in feeling comfortable with the process and to alleviate any fears they may have. Clients will fill out intake form, go over confidentiality rules for the group, and rules to be followed for sessions. Each client will have a folder to put any written activities done throughout the sessions.

Week 2


This second session will be devoted to determining level of assimilation of the women in relation to values, beliefs, and traditions from their culture. The activity of writing down a strength and weakness would perhaps have to be done as a group, to enable them to feel comfortable in knowing they all do have strengths and weaknesses. As others listen to what strengths and weaknesses they have, hopefully, they would begin to feel comfortable about their own and be able to write them on paper.   They will place this in their folder, along with how they felt about sharing.  They may also include other strengths and/or weaknesses they did not share or thought of.

Week 3


Discussion will include what kind of obstacles they have had to deal with when doing everyday activities such as shopping or banking. Discussion for ways they were able to overcome or deal with the obstacle would be a follow-up. Clients will write down all the obstacles that they feel might hinder their ability to obtain a job.  They will share with the group and the group will give feedback about different ways to overcome these obstacles.

Week 4


I would do this step the same as listed:  Clients will be put in groups of two or three that have strengths that overcome another’s weakness.  Clients will share how they have overcome that weakness through using their strength.  Each client will write at least two goals for each weakness and how they can overcome it.

Week 5


Group discussion for suggestions of skills that they realize they have acquired by simply being a mother and housewife.  These would be written on an overhead or blackboard.  They will then look at the list and write down all the job skills that they currently have.  These will be shared with the group and they may add to their list as they think of others or hear someone share a skill that they did not think of.

Week 6

Counseling cont.

I would have role-playing of how to interview, practicing entering the room, proper eye contact, asking and answering potential questions.  Clients will prepare resume that lists skills they have and begin to focus on career/job that is suited to those skills.  Share resume with partner and critique each other’s.  Make plans to go on at least three interviews during the week.

Week 7


Clients will report back what happened at the interviews – did they obtain employment?  Revise resume` if needed.  Practice interviews if needed.  Clients will look over documentation that they have included in their folders and observed the successes that they have.  If the client does not become employed they would be directed where to go for additional training to secure transferable skills.  Clients can take folders and use the contents to reinforce the progress they have made or create new goals.


Targeted Population:

Adult high school students who have been recently unsuccessful obtaining or maintaining employment.  SOME MEMBERS OF THE GROUP ARE RECENT IMIGRANTS to the area from Haiti.

Sheri Murphy

Week 1

Introduction of myself and others, go over confidentiality, establish procedures/rules for working within the group setting, identify purpose for group/overall goal(s), icebreaker.

The introduction, confidentiality, and icebreaker will require written and oral information in Creole and French for members of the group whose primary language is not English.  I will contact community members who work with Haitian families and try and recruit a volunteer to assist in our group experience by helping translate materials and interpret.

Week 2

Explain the PEC model and how it will be

applied to the group in order to explore individual needs, work reinforcers, abilities, satisfactoriness, tenure, termination/quitting jobs due to lack of fit, the need for flexibility and change, and most importantly - self-



For my Haitian members, I will spend additional time identifying transferable skills from Haiti, family responsibilities here and back in Haiti, language barriers, religious issues, etc.  It is important that I take into consideration the additional stressors/requirements that these members of the group may have because of their immigrant status.  Issues surrounding resident status, financial expectations/burdens, etc. must be considered.  Not to generalize, but I must determine if there are any medical conditions that must be addressed that may

impact occupational goals.  For example, HIV is rampant in Haiti and should they (or members of their families) require services I could assist and connecting them with treatment.  To discuss this matter within the group setting would not be appropriate so I would need to discuss this matter individually and in private.

Members will complete a map of their last 3 jobs, including things that worked for them, and things that they were not compatible with.  For example:  The pay was good, but my hours conflicted with my religious beliefs/ability to attend mosque. This activity would be assisted by my volunteer or I would need to get a French-English dictionary and try and wing it. After completing map, we will discuss maps by rounding.  Members will complete sentences as presented by leader in order to focus specifically on what needs they have

and how to determine what a good environmental fit could be.  For example:  What is most important to you about your job?  Answer might be:  I need to make enough money to pay my bills, but I hate not working with other people.  My past job was as a toll collector on the Veteran’s Expressway.  They money was ok, but I never worked with anyone.  I was all alone for hours. Session will conclude by having each members write down their top 5 reinforcers.  If writing is not feasible, an oral report would do.

Week 3

We will briefly review what was not working for them at their last job(s) based upon the information we explored in week 2.  We will identify our current abilities and begin looking for jobs that fit our abilities and priority reinforcers. Each member of the group will complete the Motivated Skills Card Sort and

Matrix Sheet in order to identify transferable skills, level of motivation to use these skills, and identify skills you believe will be most useful to you in your career development/job search. Group will discuss results briefly and look for patterns in information.


These materials may need to be translated so our Haitian members can work with them.  They may also need help completing activities as they are in English.


Week 4

We will review from last week, making sure

everyone is aware of their most valued reinforcers, their skills, and what they are not looking for in a job.  I will use the diagram of the PEC model again to go over where we have been, where we are going, etc. Discussion of satisfaction and satisfactoriness, preventing failure by being aware of job requirements

and how they may/may not be able to fit with individual needs.


Job exploration:  Members of the group will take a trip to the career development office at either a

vocational/trade school, junior college, or USF and

research jobs that they are interested in.  They will

match their individual needs/reinforcers with

occupations they are interested in.  They will need to determine if they have skills necessary to obtain a career, along with determining areas for

growth/additional development.  Haitian members will most likely require a translator to go with them.  I think that there are agencies in the community that will help immigrants further and perhaps going with them to meet with said agencies might be better than visiting the career center.  However, if the immigrants are able

to navigate independently because of having a higher educational background, such as college, they could handle this trip like everyone else. Remind group of termination next week.

Week 5

Wrap up group by reviewing what we have

accomplished, our successes in exploring

person-environment correspondence, and determining what steps are left to take in each individual’s quest for a better job fit.

Each member will complete a directional

“to do” list that summarizes their skills, their needs, their interests, and areas they will continue to develop.  Members will identify their next two steps and share them with the group. I will close by stating that they can seek follow-up assistance as needed. Haitian members will need additional help establishing connections in the community that can assist them further.


A Trait & Factor/PEC Approach with Non-College Bound High School Students

Kelly Roberts

Week 1

Client-counselor relationship, background information. I would first have introductions, then

discuss expectations for the group from myself and from the members of the group to establish a collaborative relationship. I would gain background information using an intake interview in a roundtable format. During this discussion, I will be able to ascertain various personality types and emotional status and cognitive clarity of the members.

Week 2/3

During these sessions, I will be explaining the use of and introducing various assessment tools that we will use. I will also be assessing the group members using a variety of inventories. First, I will administer the GATB (General Aptitude Test Battery) to attempt to pinpoint specific abilities of the students. I would also administer the SDS (Self-Directed Search) to assist students in finding out about careers that may match their interests and abilities.

Week 4

We will use this session to review the test results of the members and discuss their feelings and opinions about their results. At this time, I will be able to identify any students who may be having serious emotional problems or dysfunctional thinking. Those students will be asked to see me for more personal evaluation or referred as needed.

Week 5

At this time, students will be given a values assessment, such as the MIQ (Minnesota Importance Questionnaire), in order to create  a Person-Environment-Fit Analysis. This will help students choose the best career for them.

Week 6

Review PEF Analysis and begin exploring potential work environments, which may include accepting a volunteer or internship-like position or actually working part-time for wages within that career field.

**The continuation of this process will be individual as students make decisions about their careers and we

continue with follow-up to evaluate progress.


*** To make this group more culture-friendly, I might check all of the inventories, etc. for cultural/racial

bias. I would also consider culture when creating the group, as some (esp. Asian) do not feel comfortable

sharing their personal problems with an entire group of people. Something else that may come into play is the

decision-making process. Some cultures rely on the entire family to help make one member’s decisions about

work, school, and marriage.



PEC with identified G/L/B high school students

Kathleen Robinson

Week 1

Introductions, confidentiality, make group rules, discuss sexual identity status and the possible

impact on career choice, and begin career journals with initial ideas of possible careers

Week 2

Introduce and explain career needs. Have students complete reinforcement card sort. Once

reinforcers are identified, brainstorm what work environments might fulfill these needs. Discuss how

identity status has affected needs. Talk about the impact of being out vs. not being out at work. Have

students think about whether or not being out at work will be a requirement for them in their careers. Put all information into career journal.

Week 3

Use Choices to identify values and needs. Generate possible careers. Discuss if students think

G/L/B status would fit into job environments. Write all information in career journals.

Week 4

Have students identify strengths and weaknesses. Use card sort after students make initial list. Have students think of careers that would utilize their strengths and brainstorm ideas on how they can improve any weak areas they may have an interest in. Discuss how G/L/B status would impact work environment. Make lists and put into journals.

Week 5

Use information in journals to identify patterns that have developed. Provide information for further research on possible careers. Give students information on 2 books: "Cracking the Corporate Closet" by Baker, Strub, & Henning, 1995 and "The 100 Best Companies for Gay Men and Lesbians" by Mickens, 1994. Encourage students to continue using their journals. Close with discussion of what students have learned in group and what role they think their sexual identity will have on their careers. Assure students I will be there if they need any more help.



Brown’s Values Based, Holistic theory with Hispanic Female College Students

Kimberley Ghezzi

Week 1

Introductions, confidentiality, ground rules

Confidentiality is discussed in depth but members are made aware that they are welcomed to discuss the group with their families as long as they respect the anonymity of the other group members. The structure of the group is relaxed and friendly.

Week 2

Self-knowledge- What do I value?

Cultural values and family roles are discussed.


Strategy: Values Assessment. A balance between individuation and collectivism is provided. Appropriate assessments will be chosen for Hispanic females.

Week 3

Prioritize values- What values are most important to me?

Explore cultural conflicts. Discuss preferred career environments


Strategy: values card sort. Written in English and Spanish for increased comprehension.

Week 4

Exploring life roles- Do my values fit with my personal & professional life?

Traditional family roles versus professional interests. Personal and family attitudes toward work


Strategy: Discuss and chart values congruence with current life roles

Week 5

Research Occupations

What occupations support my values? Increase career maturity Develop realistic career beliefs. Provide a variety of career information including nontraditional careers Provide a list of

Hispanic female professionals to shadow


Strategy: Internet research followed by job shadowing.

Week 6

Planning next steps and closure

How do I do a values-based career search?      Incorporate familial and environmental factors into career decision-making. Provide strategies and tips for assertiveness in interviewing.


Strategy: Prepare career search action plan; structure resume to fit client values.



CIP Approach With Culturally Diverse Middle School Classroom Guidance

Theresa Gontarek


Group Goal:  For each student to learn and apply the CASVE cycle with an increase in self knowledge including values based on self, family, religion and ethnic background. 

Week 1

Introductions, Confidentiality, Ground Rules

Drawing Activity:  Divide page into three parts, on first part draw what career you first wanted to be as a child, third part draw what career you would like to pursue as of now, and in the middle write out the course of action you need to take to get to your future career, i.e. (job,, vocational school etc.) After the group, I would ask each student to take their activity home and share with their family.  On the back of the activity I would ask the student to interview, parents and grandparents if possible, to

discuss their careers and the career path they took. Students will share their family findings during the next session.

Week 2

Self Knowledge

There will be learning centers set up so that each student can participate,  One center will be an interest inventory, second center will be a values card sort that includes a variety of cultures,

third center will be a perception vs. fact activity, and fourth table will be a game of memory. The memory game will show pictures of people from several cultures to increase awareness among the students.    Each group will have 15 minutes to do each activity. At the end of the session, students will do a pulling it together sheet that will allow them to view their values, interests and

knowledge.  Part of the sheet will allow students to discuss familial influences.

Week 3

Occupational Knowledge

Each group will have occupation cards and will practice sorting jobs into several categories. For example, commonalities,

educational requirements, rank by salaries, matching

emotions towards occupations,  ability, cultural values

and expectations.

Week 4

Introduce CASVE Cycle

Divide class into 5 groups, have each group define a part of the CASVE cycle and come up with examples of their part.

Week 5

CASVE continued

Each group will share their definition and examples of the CASVE cycle.   As a class they will receive a scenario and make a decision using the CASVE cycle. Each group will have a scenario that has a person from a different culture or a person with a disability. Scenarios, difference in cultures and ability levels will be compared and contrasted.

Week 6

Decision Making Lesson

Give several scenarios and have group debate a decision.  Label scenarios that were easily decided on and ones that were indecisive. Have students discuss why there be different decisions made by different people. 

Week 7

Culminating Activity

Go back to original pictures from Week 1, discuss what thoughts may have changed about themselves, what occupations may relate to the first one they picked, Use CASVE cycle to make decisions about their career plan and discuss in small groups.


Person-Environment Correspondence Model With High School Students With Learning Disabilities

Farah Remarais


Week 1

Introductions, confidentiality and purpose of group.


Week 2

Identification of needs

Strategy: card sort to identify work values. To ensure that all the students are able to correctly do the card sort, some students might work in group where one member is reading the cards to the other member.

Week 3

Identification of abilities

Strategy: What are my strengths and weaknesses?

Week 4

Matching of careers with abilities

Strategy: research and exploration of potential careers. The

students would also identify their strengths and different ways that they have learned to overcome their disabilities.

Week 5

Planning and closure

Strategy: making plans for shadowing and individual follow-up with counselor. I would have the students shadow individuals who have learning disabilities.


PEC Model With Middle School Students

Laura Eliason

This group model would consist of eight middle school students. I would be discussing the world of work and

letting each student assess their own career needs and wants. The group will be multicultural and consist of

white students, black students, and Hispanic students.

Week 1

Introduction, confidentiality, and ground rules.

Students will get to share their dreams job and why they would like to be that job. Career journals will start, students will be given time to write in them.

Week 2

Student's strengths

We will discuss each student's strengths and how we acquired these strengths (through our families, heritage) each student will write in their journal why their strengths are so important to find a career. we will discuss as a group how each strength will be valuable in a career.

Week 3

Student's abilities

We will discuss the differences between strengths and abilities and then go into abilities of each student. How did each student

acquire these abilities- (parenting styles, families, heritage, values). Each student will get to write in their journal about their abilities and how they can help get a job. Then group discussion on how each ability will lead to a career and what careers need each ability.

Week 4

Combination of strengths and abilities.

Each student will make a collage of their strengths and abilities, using words, pictures and phrases. Then group discussion will be on brainstorming all possible careers to match each collage. Students will be given time to write in journals about group experience. Students will research possible careers and educational requirements for their desired careers and then will present two careers to the group.

Week 5

Wrap up and closing activity

Students will wrap up group experience by sharing their cultural background or family traditions and how they play a role in career development. (example- Hispanic girl might bring in dance costume to show the group her heritage in cultural dancing, or a white girl might bring in homemade goods to share with the group that all the women in her family marry young and stay at home to raise children and pass down secret family recipes)


Each member will get a chance to discuss share item and then discuss each one- finally each member will get to write in the other's journal to show their support of their dream career or to share some thoughts on the group experience.


I will exit interview each student and let them know how to get a hold of me if the need further assistance.



Williamson’s Approach with Native American Clients

Deborah Kahen

Week 1

Introductions, confidentialities, ground rules.

Analysis:  Data gathering stage:


Strategy:  Have participants fill out a questionnaire to determine how immersed they are in their culture.

Week 2

Synthesis Strengths/Weaknesses

Uncover mistaken thinking by participants and values they hold that might or might not be consistent with their



Strategy:  Include in this week's group Native American role models.

Week 3


Identify Problem, discover its causes: Make participants aware of various career opportunities that they might not even know exist.  


Strategy:  Give each participant a list of nontraditional careers, and have them research these careers on the internet.

Week 4


How successful will the client be? Encourage clients to maintain the positive aspects of their personalities that are related to their culture, while slightly changing habits that might be culturally

acceptable, but obstacles to career development.


Strategy:  Have clients take the SDS on the computer, then discuss their codes as a group.  Focus on how their scores reflect how they see themselves. At this point, if necessary, set up private counseling sessions with clients that need it.


PEC With Asian-American college students

Evangelia Chalkias

Week 1

Introductions, purpose of the group, discuss and record group rules.

Focus on within-group differences. All members of the group should not be clumped together; for instance, a Chinese-American woman's cultural background may be different from that of a Japanese-American woman's cultural background.

Week 2

Explore values


Strategy:  values card sort/ checklist, prioritization sheet

Many Asian-Americans place high value on religious traditions; if this is true within the group, allow members to share their individual traditions.  Religion may affect their view of career counseling and mental health in general.

Week 3

Explore abilities


Strategy:  formulate individual strengths/weaknesses

This activity should promote self-expression, something that may be difficult for the group.  The Asian-American stereotype is that of a "model minority." In other words, successful and hardworking.  Seeking counseling is often frowned upon; very important to normalize.  How have these stereotypes impacted career goals?

Week 4

Identify congruence


Strategy:  look for a match between individual traits and potential careers through web-based resources and other relevant literature

Direct, confrontational career counseling should probably be avoided here.  The counselor must communicate the importance of congruence in a sensitive manner.  Collaboration is necessary.


Week 5

Closure and follow-up


Strategy: offer suggestions, list of resources, possibility for career center visits

Asian-American role models should be introduced to the group.  As with all clients, group members should be encouraged to return for additional career counseling.





Person Environment Correspondence Theory in the High School setting

Jaime Weston

I would create groups based upon who I feel will benefit from the sessions and how I feel the members will

interact with each other. I will take into consideration culture, as certain cultural groups may not feel open to

discussing personal information in a group setting. This would be addressed during screening.


Week 1

Introduction, Confidentiality, Getting to know each other/ ice breaker

Week 2

Getting to know our selves, our needs and desires- in this step I might include getting to know our families so that members can tell about their values and the role family has to play in that.

Week 3

Understanding how our needs relate to our career choices for optimal happiness and career success. I would include discussion of family influence and values.

Week 4

Card Sort that matches person and environment. Highlighting abilities as well as discussing weaknesses. Here I would address cultural challenges like discrimination and stereotypes. We would take about ways to create a more culture friendly environment.

Week 5

Planning for the future and closure


Williamson’s Approach With High School Girls

Christina Day

Week 1


This would include going over confidentiality, introduction to our group, and laying

out some ground rules.  In addition, I would stress that this is a data gathering stage.  I would have them fill out some brief information sheets.  One thing that we might do is the TP game--which allows them to share information about themselves.   *This would be an opportune time to point out the uniqueness of each individual girl, not only from what she says as she introduces herself, but how she says it and then discuss

what makes her unique.  We would begin to want to discover exactly where each girl is coming from, which is what helps to make her a unique individual.

Week 2


The purpose here is to identify their strengths and weaknesses.  I would have this in a

computer lab where they would have access to take some CACGS's to explore their personality and career interests.  They would then read through suggested careers to follow and/or avoid.   *I think at this point it would be helpful to introduce to the girls, even to each one individually, at least one role model from their field of interest (and then have each girl read upon that person).  I would want to stress that they are

encouraged to "think outside the box"--to not let the fact that they are girls limit their options.

Week 3


I would want them to identify the problem and discover its causes, if there is even a

problem at all.  I would have them share with the class some of their thoughts about the test they took the previous week and then as a group, we would highlight

various possibilities that could come out of this.  They would hopefully have time to research this on the internet for possible connections for these careers.   *This might be a good opportunity to form some career planning workshops for the community which would address the needs of other girls such as these.  I would encourage those in the group already to continue to research their intended paths, and to return to me as


Week 4


This helps to determine how successful a client will be.  Students will be encouraged to interview (or at least research in depth) someone from their potential field of work.  They will need to weigh the pros and cons of that job.   *Driving this even closer to home, the girls can interview culturally similar people within the community who are doing what they are intending to do someday (or someone similar at least).

Week 5


This deals with peer counseling, as they will share what they learned from their interviews with one other person and then together they can discuss possible next steps.  The counselor will be among the students during this time. *Students will again be encourage to discuss ways that they can make things happen for them.  Using group interventions is helpful for cultural counseling.

Week 6


As a group, we will go over some of their intended courses of action (for school, college, and/or career). *Students will be presented with short term goals as well as be given the opportunity to relate their current situation with some long-term goals. 


It is important to maintain that they are each individuals with something unique to offer.  The fact that they are all female, also makes the nature of this group unique.


All of the (*) indicates some ways to additionally help to meet the needs of multicultural students by offering various interventions.


Holland's Approach With African Americans

Nicole Sims

More research needs to be done with Holland's Types on African Americans and congruence.  African Americans may also have experienced restricted work options.

Week 1

Introduction of Holland's Theory,

Confidentiality, Ground Rules.

We will begin to discuss how participants view career counseling and career development.

Week 2

Self-exploration through modal personality style assessment

Strategy: play party game/ have students guess type complete SDS online. Because minority students may have less experience with computers, I will allow more time to assist students if they need assistance in doing the assessment. In addition we will discuss the client world view and degree of


Week 3

Review SDS results

Strategy: review each individual type have students complete the type quilt and share quilt square with group. In this session we will also explore participants experiences with racism and discuss how their experiences may have affected their Holland's type.

Week 4

Orientation to the Dictionary of Occupational Titles

Strategy: Show students how to look up occupations in DOT.  Have students each research one occupational they liked from their SDS results and then give a small oral report to group about that occupation.  Students will also look at demographics in job, and how being a minority could effect job outlook.  We will discuss how certain characteristics could be considered

a weakness or strength in career development. We’ll discuss what jobs participants feel restricted from due to diversity.

Week 5

Handout Career Resources/ Closure

Strategy: Give students web addresses and other career resources which will help to aid them in the job search. I will also give special resources to help aide minorities in their

career development.



Brown's Values-Based Model with At-Risk 6-8th Graders

Debra Davies


Group: Small groups (4-5) or a class broken up into smaller groups, 6-8th grade. Small groups can be

students identified as being “at risk” for dropping out or failing for the second time. Each student will be

given a journal to write down their thoughts and information.


Week 1

Introduction, confidentiality rules, ground rules for participating.

Strategy: Have students fill out Intake Form and turn in to counselor. **Discuss how family/cultural backgrounds can influence peoples of “values.”** Have students write what their definition of a “value” is and share it with their group. Then have each group (if done in a class) share with the rest of the class.

Homework: Each student is to list their top 5 values and obtain from at least one of their parents their top 5 values.

Week 2

Values prioritization.

Strategy: Have students do a values card sort as a group (**make sure that there are a wide variety of values to cover different cultures**). They will need to discuss their reasoning (this forces the student to look at his/her values **and how their culture might be a factor** as well as opens their mind to other possibilities). They will choose the top 5-10 values and rank them. They will then discuss whether genetics or environment played a role in shaping that value.

Homework: Prioritize their values that they wrote down (they may decide that their values need changing after this activity and that is ok).

Week 3

Life Satisfaction

Strategy: Students are to describe their “dream” job. They will list the good and bad parts of this job. Then they will look at their values list and determine if the job will meet their list of values. The group will brainstorm other possibilities that would fulfill most

or all of the values.

Homework: Students will be given a list of websites and asked to find information on the

jobs that have been  brainstormed. Interviewing people already in those fields would also be acceptable.

**Students would look for examples of people from their

culture doing those jobs.**

Week 4

Role Salience

Strategy: After gathering the information, the group will look at the information to see if their values would be satisfied by that job. Discuss which of their values they might be willing to sacrifice in order to do a job. Discuss which values they would NOT sacrifice and why. **Does their culture have anything to do with their decisions? This could lead to a discussion of the

importance of culture.** Brainstorm ideas of what to do if the job does not match the value.

Homework: Students are to create a list of steps they can take to prepare themselves for a job that matches their values.

Week 5


Strategy: Students will discuss their plans, looking for ways to improve their plan and possible problem areas (maintaining an A average may be too hard for some students). Students will determine ways of obtaining help if they cannot stick with their plan. Counselor to emphasize that he/she is here to help at any time.




Ginzberg and Associate’s Developmental Theory with early high school students (9th graders)

Ellen Miller

(Tentative Stage: recognition of interests, work possibilities and requirements, abilities, work rewards, values, and time perspectives.)                                                                                        

Week 1

Introductions, confidentiality, ground rules:

Brainstorm list of career fields (not specific jobs within fields; i.e. medical, construction, arts, education, political) Group members will be given several sources to use during the week to research some of the options in areas that they deemed seemed interesting from the brainstorming activity. I would encourage them to come with lists under a major category, divided into four columns of information:  1. job titles, 2. training required, 3. income expected, and 4. type of workplace.  Have posted in room pictures of various occupations with diverse populations performing them. Just as a visual, not necessarily used as part of any particular weekly session.

Week 2

Exploring Careers

Students will share the results of their research and the group will brainstorm careers again using the results. The new list can consist of additions under the general headings (for medical we may want to add chiropractor and x-ray technician). Also the new list can be new ideas people have thought of or run across over the course of the week. Same assignment will be given for the following week. In addition students will be guided to begin thinking about what is important to them in a job.

Week 3


Individual card sorts including leisure activities, crafts, academics, food, automobiles, church/synagogue, family events, etc. (Make certain this card sort includes a wide variety of people, culture, disabilities, race, gender) Group members would then share how and why they chose the cards they chose to be representative of them. This will open discussion and hopefully reveal the tendency to choose from sex-type and other influences, allowing them to use more freedom of choice. Also a time to point out that career choice might want to lean towards an interest to make life more pleasant. Group will conclude with each individual generating a list of interests they have. During discussion of tendencies of people to stick to what society sees as appropriate roles, a brief introduction of how and why this should not be happening. Why we need not decide on a career based on how we see it (as male/female/race/class).

Week 4

Value Identification

Group will report back with more career opportunities and share. Then using The Values Scale by Consulting Psychologists Press, each member will schedule a time to come by individually to learn what the meaning of the results were.

Week 5


(This will be closure only to research and activity now that the speakers are scheduled and a question and answer session has been added.)

The final meeting will be used to share what has been learned, and for open discussion about careers and what they can/need to do over the next three years as high school students to continue discovering more about the work force and where they would like to  head.

Week 6

Bringing in a More Comprehensive View

I would have a panel of speakers come to the group session to speak very briefly about their job and then all of them would be available to answer questions. This panel would be specifically selected using two criteria. First, the professions of job speakers would be determined by the interest level of individual groups (so the same speakers wouldn’t come each time). Second, the speakers would be racially diverse, disabled, and unusual genders. Meaning a variety of people from various cultures, as well as physically and mentally handicapped workers, and men filling typically women jobs, women in typically male jobs.