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The Eighteen National Geography Standards

The World in Spatial Terms

Standard 1: How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information.

Standard 2: How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments.

Standard 3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.

Places and Regions

Standard 4: The physical and human characteristics of places.

Standard 5: That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.

Standard 6: How culture and experience influence people's perception of places and regions.

Physical Systems

Standard 7: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.

Standard 8: The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.

Human Systems

Standard 9: The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.

Standard 10: The characteristics, distributions, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.

Standard 11: The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface, process, patterns, and functions of human settlement.

Standard 12: The process, patterns, and functions of human settlement.

Standard 13: How forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface.

Environment and Society

Standard 14: How human actions modify the physical environment.

Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems.

Standard 16: The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.

The Uses of Geography

Standard 17: How to apply geography to interpret the past.

Standard 18: To apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.


Source: The Eighteen National Geography Standards



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2005 NCSS Notable Trade books

2004 NCSS Notable Trade books

2003 NCSS Notable Trade books

2002 NCSS Notable Trade books

2001 NCSS Notable Trade books