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Competencies and Skills for Instructional Designers

Electronically reprinted by permission of: Analysis & Technology, Inc. Copyright © 1995.


1. Perform a needs assessment/analysis

  • Develop a needs assessment/analysis plan and instrument
  • Conduct a needs assessment/analysis and collect data
  • Identify discrepancies based on analysis of data collection
  • Recommend options that solve the discrepancies

2. Plan and monitor training projects

  • Develop a project management plan
  • Develop cost-benefit analysis
  • Develop budgets and schedules
  • Identify resource allocation requirements
  • Monitor activities and make appropriate adjustments to achieve project goals
  • Identify constraints that impact budget, schedule, resource requirements

3. Assess the relevant characteristics of the target audience

  • Select the target audience characteristics that are appropriate for assessment
  • Develop a target audience profile
  • Differentiate between the types of learners that will benefit from the instruction from those who will have difficulty comprehending the courseware

4. Assess the relevant characteristics of the setting

  • Identify relevant resources, constraints, and context of the development and delivery environments
  • Identify how the courseware will be used in the curriculum
  • Evaluate how the setting characteristics may impact proposed instructional approaches
  • State a rationale for the selection of the resources and constraints of the development and delivery environments chosen

5. Perform job, task, and/or content analysis

  • Analyze the characteristics of a job, task, or body of knowledge
  • Identify appropriate source documentation to support analysis
  • Identify tasks, subtasks, cognitive processes and their sequential and/or hierarchical relationships
  • Comprehend technical content in terms of the entire course content and individual lessons
  • Assess frequency, criticality, difficulty and complexity of knowledge and skills contained in curricula to accommodate target audience learning styles
  • Identify prerequisite knowledge and skills for tasks, subtasks, and knowledge

6. Write criterion-referenced, performance-based objectives

  • State an objective in performance terms that reflect the intent of instruction
  • Sequence the objectives to reflect the curriculum design
  • Describe the relationship between the objectives, technical content and performance measurement

7. Select instructional media

  • Identify instructional media options that address training needs
  • Describe characteristics of instructional media
  • Evaluate candidate training system hardware and software capabilities and limitations
  • Conduct a cost-benefit analysis to determine cost-effectiveness of instructional media options that support objectives within imposed constraints
  • Recommend instructional media that provides utility and probability across and within each unit of instruction

8. Recommend instructional strategies

  • Discuss learning theories, instructional design strategies, instructional psychology, and learning styles appropriate to the curricular objectives
  • Describe and provide a rationale for the selection of an instructional approach
  • Design instructional materials that are appropriate to the ability level of the learners

9. Develop performance measurement instruments

  • Develop performance measures: criterion-referenced achievement tests, questionnaires, interviews, simulation scenarios, observation checklists, performance checklists, product checklists
  • Identify variables to measure and construct assessment items appropriate to the associated objective
  • Judge the validity and reliability of instruction based on statistical results
  • State the rationale for using one type of assessment tool over another

10. Develop training program materials

  • Develop media materials that are linked to and within the hardware/software constraints, are consistent across and between lessons, and clearly communicate information
  • Develop flowcharts to identify learning events at the frame specific level using standardized symbology
  • Develop storyboards using a template appropriate to the needs of the project to
  • Enter data that clearly communicates what will be developed and presented to the user
  • Select and construct appropriate interactions and user control techniques
  • Write scripts that include: Introductions, body, transitions, and summary in conversational, active voice to match comprehension level of target audience
  • Consistent use of tense, grammar, terminology that is interesting and varied
  • Use a variety of authoring and/or software applications packages
  • Develop audiovisual display designs that include: screen layouts and human-machine interfaces
  • Develop course support materials and documentation
  • Perform debug procedures to identify inconsistencies and discrepancies
  • Understand video production/postproduction procedures
  • Understand the relationship between storyboard production and courseware production

11. Prepare end-users for implementation of courseware materials

  • Train instructors on how to present courseware to students
  • Provide guidance to users on hardware, software, and courseware

12. Evaluate instruction, program, and process

  • Develop a formative/summative evaluation plan and conduct the formative/summative evaluation
  • Generate specifications for revisions based on feedback collected during evaluation

13. Demonstrate an ability to grasp technical content

14. Communicate effectively by visual, oral, and written form with individuals, small group, and in front of large audiences

15. Interact effectively with other people

  • Establish rapport with individuals and groups
  • Ask questions, explain information, listen
  • Deal with impediments to progress among members of a group (friction, resistance)

16. Demonstrate good work habits

  • Demonstrate organizational skills and time management abilities
  • Demonstrate flexibility and problem solving abilities

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